The biliary system has the functions of secreting, storing, concentrating and transporting bile, and plays an important role in regulating the discharge of bile into the duodenum.
Malignant biliary obstruction caused by malignant tumors such as cholangiocarcinoma, liver cancer, pancreatic cancer and metastatic cancer has a high incidence. Usually, the cancer is already at an advanced stage when it is discovered. Placing biliary stents into the stenosis or obstruction is a good way to cure biliary obstruction.
In complex biliary tract reconstruction, the application of biliary stents should not be ignored, especially indwelling biliary stents should be considered in the case of unsatisfactory biliary reconstruction. Biliary stents can not only play the role of decompression and drainage, support, and facilitate the healing of the biliary tract, but also facilitate the observation of the situation of bile and postoperative cholangiography.
Studies have confirmed that indwelling stent tubes through anastomotic stents is a very important factor in avoiding biliary complications, and can play a role in reducing biliary complications, especially in complex and difficult biliary tract reconstruction. In the process of biliary tract reconstruction with liver transplantation, biliary stents may not be indwelled for patients with good biliary tract conditions. However, for some complex biliary reconstructions, different types of biliary stents can be selected according to different conditions during the operation. The aim is to facilitate the healing of the biliary tract and reduce complications of the biliary after liver transplantation.
At present, the most widely used biliary stent is a braided mesh stent made of nitinol alloy, which is a straight cylinder in shape. In general, the nitinol shape memory alloy biliary stents are self-expanding. The expansion of stents can be observed during insertion, and a ballon dilation can be used when necessary. Nitinol alloy biliary stents are suitable for extrahepatic bile duct obstruction or stenosis caused by various malignant lesions. They have the following advantages:
(1) Nitinol self-expanding biliary stents have excellent biocompatibility and corrosion resistance, as well as unique memory characteristics.
(2) Biliary stents have good super-elasticity at body temperature, and can fluctuate with normal biliary peristalsis. So the biliary tract can remain unobstructed without discomfort.
(3) Both ends of biliary stents are small arcs, which will not damage the biliary tract wall. The operation is simple and the curative effect is definite.
(4) It can prevent the blockage of stents caused by bacterial infection and bile mud deposition.