Tracheal stent placement is one of the important methods for the treatment of airway stenosis, which can quickly relieve dyspnea and improve clinical symptoms. The application of the tracheal stent can be traced back to the 1890s. In the past 20 years, with the continuous development of materials science and the popularization of bendable bronchoscopy in clinical practice, tracheal stent placement has been widely used in clinical practice.
In recent years, with the successful application of the metal stent in angioplasty, it has also been used in the clinical treatment of tracheal stenosis with satisfactory results. The stents used are stainless steel stents and nickel-titanium memory alloy mesh stents. The stent is made of Nitinol wire for the main trachea and bronchus. Some stents can partially cover or completely covered to prevent the tumor from growing into the cavity and block the esophagotracheal fistula.
The ideal tracheal stent should have the following characteristics:
① It should be easy to place and remove.
② It has good expansion ability without causing damage to the tracheal mucosa.
③ There are many models of different sizes suitable for various tracheal strictures.
④ It can maintain the placement position without moving.
⑤ It does not stimulate the tracheal mucosa to aggravate the infection and promote the formation of granulation tissue.
⑥ It does not block the tracheal drainage.
⑦ It does not inhibit the movement of cilia and the removal of secretions.
(1) "Y"-shaped tracheal stent
The Y-shaped tracheal stent is fully consistent with the anatomical structure of the tracheal carina. The stent and the tracheal carina are completely fit due to the original main body and two-branch design, which will not be displaced or deformed. And it is beneficial to breathing and sputum discharge. The stent that is covered with a membrane can reduce stimulation and block the fistula, as well as keep the airway unblocked for a long time. The Y-shaped design can complete the treatment of various lesions in the carina at one time, which can reduce the incidence of surgical complications, reduce the difficulty of the surgery, and reduce the cost.
(2) The bronchial stump fistula blockage stent
The main body of the stent is connected to the branch part to fix the branch to reduce displacement and complications. The main body of the tracheal stent is not covered with membrane, which is firmly fixed and easy to recycle. The blind end of the bullet is covered with a double layer, which can effectively seal the fistula with little irritation. The lateral wall of the tracheal stent has a positioning mark, which is easy to operate.
(3) The main trachea stent and the bronchus stent
The main tracheal and the bronchial stent are cylindrical, and the unique braiding method allows the stent to support and shape the tracheal lumen in a good manner. The fully coated design helps the fistula to heal while keeping the airway unblocked for a long time. There are many options for the trachea stent and the bronchial stent.